كيف شفي ايوب من الجرب
اضرب برجلك هذا مفتسل بارد وشراب
How Ayoub the prophet was cured
الرجلة أو البَقْلَة
اركض برجلك هذا :
١- مغتسل بارد
الرجله المباركه، لاتمو الا في ممرات السيول والانهار
ابن سينا فيقول: إنها تقلع التآليل
داود الانطاكي فيقول: إن من فوائدها أنها تمنع الصداع والأورام الحارة والرمد والحكة والجرب
وكذلك ترياق للدغات الآفاعي والعقارب والرتيلاء، كما تستخدم كدهان لعلاج المشاكل الجلدية
باركها الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله وأحبتها البتول …
وروي أن النّبيّ (صلى الله عليه وآله) وجد حرارةً فعضّ على رجلة فوجد لذلك راحةً، فقال: «اللّهمّ بارك فيها، إنّ فيها شفاءً من تسعة وتسعين داء، انبتي حيث شئت».
حيث انها مضاده للعطش وقابضه وتعلاج امراض الجلد المستعصيه المشهور بها بني اسرائيل
تعتبر منذ القدم بأنها أفضل النباتات الطبية , ومما قيل عنها : إنها تمنع الصداع ,
والرمد , والحكة , والجرب , وبذر هذا النبات يغلى في الماء فيطرد الدودة الوحيدة .
وقد أكدت أحدث الدراسات العلمية أن نبات الرجلة له دور فعال فى الوقاية من السرطان وعلاجه، حيث إنه يعمل على منع نمو وتكاثر الخلايا السرطانية، ويقوم بالتقاط الشوارد الحرة الناتجة عن الإصابة بالسرطان فيحد من انتشاره.
اعتبرت البقلة ولفترة طويلة نباتًا طبيًّا حيث أنها تحتوي على نسبة بيتا كاروتين عالية أكثر من السبانخ، بالإضافة إلى المستويات العالية للمغنيسيوم والبوتاسيوم وفيتامين أ، وج، واستعملت لمعالجة أوجاع الرأس والمثانة ولشفاء القروح ولطرد الديدان ولشفاء ضربة البرد والإصابات بمسحوق البارود. وبشكل عام فقد استخدمت تاريخيًّا كعلاج للروماتيزم.
وتستعمل أزهار وأوراق البقلة لمعالجة أمراض كثيرة ومنها : التهابات الجلد، والاكزيما، والباسور، والتهابات في المسالك البولية والرئتين ولتحضير الضمادات ضد الحروق، فقد بينت الدراسات التي أجريت في المختبرات أن البقلة تحوي مواد مضادة للجراثيم والفطريات.
تستعمل البقلة هذه الأيام لتنقية الدم ومعالجة التهابات اللثة وذلك عن طريق مضغها.
في الطب التقليدي، استخدمت البقلة لإزالة الحرارة والمواد السامة، وإيقاف النزيف، إضافة لاستخدامها في علاج أمراض التنفس.
نطلب من الازهر الشريف ودار الافتاء بتصحيح تفسير القران في الايتين
فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الْأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا
ارْكُضْ بِرِجْلِكَ ۖ هَٰذَا مُغْتَسَلٌ بَارِدٌ وَشَرَابٌ
علي اساس ان البقله المشار اليها هي البقله الحمراء او نبات الرجله
وعلي اساس ان كلمه برجلك هذا ، ، لاتعني ابدا برجليك ولا بارجلك ولا قدميك حتي فهي تشير الي نبات الرجله الذي يعالج الجرب والصدفيه كمغتسل بارد والديدان المعويه كشراب مستخرج لتعم المنفعه علي الناس بدلا من شركات الدواء وانتشار الوباء القادم.
noradrenaline, calcium salts, dopamine, L-DOPA, malic acid, citric acid, glutamic acid, asparagic acid, nicotinic acid, alanine, glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Purslane also contains oxalic acid that makes it non-recommended in large quantities for people who have uric acid or kidney problems or must restrict dietary oxalate levels.
Betacyanins isolated from Portulaca oleracea improved cognition deficits in aged mice. A subclass of homoisoflavonoids from the plant showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines.
Purslane contains more omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid in particular) than any other leafy vegetable. Studies have found that purslane has 0.01 mg/g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). It also contains vitamins (mainly vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin B, carotenoids), and dietary minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron.
Also present are two types of betalain alkaloid pigments, the reddish betacyanins (visible in the coloration of the stems) and the yellow betaxanthins(noticeable in the flowers and in the slight yellowish cast of the leaves). Both of these pigment types are potent antioxidants and have been found to have antimutagenic properties in laboratory studies.
Portulaca oleracea L.: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects
Portulaca oleracea L. is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution belonging to the Portulacaceae family. It is commonly known as purslane (USA and Australia), rigla (Egypt), pigweed (England), pourpier (France), and Ma-Chi-Xian (China) . It is distributed widely in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world including many parts of the United States and is eaten extensively as a potherb and is added to soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries . Americans and aborigines of Australia grind the seeds of this plant into flour for use in mush and bread [ Portulaca oleracea also provides a source of nutritional benefits owing to its rich omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant properties
Portulaca oleracea has been used as a folk medicine in many countries, acting as a febrifuge, antiseptic, vermifuge, and so forth . It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antibacterial ] antiulcerogenic , anti-inflammatory , antioxidant , and wound-healing . properties. It is listed by the World Health Organization as one of the most used medicinal plants, and it has been given the term “Global Panacea” ]. The Chinese folklore described it as “vegetable for long life” and it has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine [, 13]. It is cold in nature and sour in taste and is used to cool the blood, stanch bleeding, clear heat, and resolve toxins. The dried aerial part of this plant is indicated for the treatment of fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, carbuncle, eczema and hematochezia, with a recommended dose of 9–15 g [
Portulaca oleracea has a high potential to be used as human and animal food and to be utilized as a pharmacological agent in medicine. In this paper, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this plant are reviewed and its potential for further investigation, exploitation, and utilization are discussed.Go to:
Many constituents of Portulaca oleracea have been isolated, including flavonoids, alkaloids, fatty acids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, sterols, proteins, and minerals; these are listed in Table 1 and the chemical structures of the main compounds are presented in Figure 1.
One of the most effective constituents present in Chinese Herbal Medicines are flavonoids which are biologically active and possess a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antivirus, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation properties. In the Portulaca oleracea plant, the flavonoids levels vary according to the part of the plant; the highest levels are present in the root followed by stem and the leaf; and seven different flavonoids are present in this plant, including kaempferol, myricetin, luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, genistein, and genistin . However, only kaempferol and apigenin have been found in ethanolic extracts of leaves and stems, with the levels in the former being higher . Portulacanones B–D, three homoisoflavonoids compounds, display selectively cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (SF-268, NCI-H460, and SGC-7901) . Flavonoids are also widely present in foods such as fruits and vegetables .
In addition to flavonoids, another important chemical found in this plant is alkaloids including dopa, dopamine, and noradrenalin. The content of dopamine and noradrenalin is higher in leaves compared to stem and seeds. The amount of dopamine and noradrenalin obtained from leaves varies according to the solvents used in the extraction process, suggesting that the levels of these compounds are dependent on the solvents used during the extraction process . Oleraceins A, B, C, D, and E are cyclodopa alkaloids isolated from this plant  and several analytes such as (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone and 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one display cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells .
Portulaca oleracea is also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, which is usually present in oil and fat of fishes but not normally found in plants. Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in the enhancement of immune function  and prevention and treatment of hypertension, coronary artery disease, cancer, and other inflammatory and autoimmune disorders . It includes α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, which are essential for normal growth, health promotion, and disease prevention in humans. Polysaccharides found inPortulaca oleracea are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to their modulation of blood lipids, metabolism, and decrease of blood glucose. Portulaca oleracea contains monoterpenes such as portulosides A and B, diterpenes such as portulene, and β-amyrin type triterpenoids [1, 25]; in addition, vitamins have also been isolated from the leaves of this plant. It contains the highest content of vitamin A which is a natural antioxidant playing an important role in vision, maintaining healthy mucus membranes and protecting against lung and oral cavity cancers among green leafy vegetables. This plant also contains ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and B-complex vitamins, for example, niacin, pyridoxine, and riboflavin . Furthermore it is rich in minerals like phosphorus, manganese, icon, calcium selenium , and the amino acids isoleucine, proline, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, cystine, valine, threonine, and tyrosine . Many other constituents have also been isolated from this plant, such as β-carotene, glutathione, melatonin, portulacerebroside A, catechol, and bergapten.Go to:
Over the past decades, numerous researchers have investigated the pharmacological activities of Portulaca oleracea. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the main pharmacological properties which are presented below.
3.1. Neuroprotective Activity
Administration of Portulaca oleracea can scavenge free radicals and antagonize rotenone-induced neurons apoptosis, dopamine depletion, and complex-I inhibition in striatum of rats, suggesting that Portulaca oleracea may be a potential neuroprotective candidate against Parkinson’s disease . The extract of Portulaca oleracea (EP) protects nerve tissue/cells from hypoxic damage probably by elevation of glycolysis, EPO, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 expression levels . The ethanol extract decreases the activity of caspase-3 in neuron whilst reducing serum levels of neuron specific enolase in hypoxia mice and the pathological damages caused by hypoxia. In these studies, an increase in the neuron viability and an induction in the mRNA and protein expression of endogenous erythropoietin have also been reported. Thus, the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 α expression is associated with the neuroprotective effects of EP against hypoxia injury by eliciting endogenous erythropoietin expression . β-Cyanin evidently inhibits D-galactose-induced neurotoxicity in mice, which at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg upregulates the activities of superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, whilst reducing the level of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in the brain of D-galactose-treated mice. When compared to vitamin C, β-cyanin play a more pronounced effect on alleviating cognition deficits in mice . The total alkaloidal extracts from 31 traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities by Ellman’s method and modified TLC bioautographic assay. As a result, the alkaloidal extract of Portulaca oleracea significantly inhibited AChE activity at a final concentration of 100 μg/mL with the IC50 value of 29.4 μg/mL. The use of AChE inhibitors has been a promising treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD); therefore, Portulaca oleraceamay be an effective agent for the prophylaxis and treatment of AD .
3.2. Antidiabetic Activity
Portulaca oleracea attenuates body weight, serum free fatty acids, and hyperinsulinemia. It also increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by injection of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg) and feeding of high calorie forage, suggesting that Portulaca oleracea alleviates insulin resistance . Administration of the seeds powder (5 g × 2/day) increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and albumin, while lowering the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), liver gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total and direct bilirubin, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, body weight, and body mass index in type 2 diabetic subjects. There were no differences in these results compared to the data obtained with metformin treatment (1500 mg/day) except for LDLC, HDLC, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, suggesting that Portulaca oleracea seeds are valuable and effective as an adjunctive and alternative therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus .
The aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea also prevents diabetic vascular inflammation, hyperglycemia, and diabetic endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, suggesting its protective role against diabetes and related vascular complications . The crude polysaccharide extract of this plant also lowers blood glucose and modulates the metabolism of blood lipids and glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice , whilst decreasing the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic mice .
3.3. Antioxidant Activity
The antioxidant property of Portulaca oleracea is attributed to its constituents, such as gallotannins, omega-3 fatty acids, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherols, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin [8, 16, 17]. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay), which is an simple, rapid, and inexpensive method for measuring DNA strand breaks, confirmed that the aqueous extract significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA lesions in human lymphocytes, whereas the ethanolic extract had no effects, which may be associated with the antioxidant constituents contained in the aqueous extract . The aqueous extract decreases high fat diet-elicited oxidative damage by modulating blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, elevating leptin/β-actin and liver PPAR a/β-actin and inhibiting the protein expression of p-PERK and the FAS mRNA expression of liver and spleen in mice . In another study, the aqueous extract at a concentration range of 100, 150, 200, and 400 μg/mL and the ethanolic extract at a range of 1200 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively, exerted cytoprotective effects on 2,2′-azobis hydrochloride-induced hemolytic damages of RBCs in a concentration-dependent manner .
3.4. Anticancer Activity
Polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea display several biological activities, such as anticancer, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and immunity enhancing properties [37–40]. Polysaccharides evidently scavenge the accumulation of free radicals and modulate immunity functions of rats with ovarian cancer . Sulfated derivatives of POP, a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated fromPortulaca oleracea, have a suppressive effect on the growth of HeLa and HepG2 cells in vitro, suggesting that the sulfation of POP increases the cytotoxicity in tumor cells . In addition to polysaccharides, other bioactive compounds such as cerebrosides, homoisoflavonoids, and alkaloids also showin vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines. Portulacerebroside A stimulates human liver cancer HCCLM3 cell apoptosis via the activation of the p38 MAPK- and JNK-triggered mitochondrial death pathway  and 2,2′-dihydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxychalcone is more active against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC50 value of 1.6 ug/mL than mitomycin C which has an IC50 value of 13.0 ug/mL. Portulacanones B is active against SGC-7901 cell lines with an IC50 value of 16.2 ug/mL, which is very close to the value obtained with mitomycin C. 2,2′-Dihydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxychalcone is moderately active against K-562 cells with an IC50 value of 24.6 ug/mL and portulacanones B–D show selective cytotoxic activity against SF-268 and/or NCI-H460 cells with IC50 values of 14.3–20.1 ug/mL . N-trans-Feruloyltyramine, (7′R)-N-feruloylnormetanephrine, 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one, and (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone have weak bioactivities against K562 with IC50 values of 222.77, 66.94, 90.09, and 41.52 umol/L, respectively, and moderate bioactivities against A549 with IC50 values of 28.80, 21.76, 24.54, and 37.20 umol/L, respectively . These studies demonstrate that Portulaca oleracea has a potential application in the treatment of cancer.
Portulaca oleracea possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities as revealed by its antifungal effect against dermatophytes of the generaTrichophyton . A pectic polysaccharide isolated from the aerial part of this plant displays antiherpes property against simplex virus type 2 which is due to the inhibition of virus penetration and not virus adsorption . A 70% methyl alcohol extract of Portulaca oleracea shows antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative stains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, andNeisseria gonorrhea with inhibition zones of 14, 15, and 15 mm, respectively, and the Gram-positive strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, andStreptococcus faecalis with inhibition zones of 13, 14, and 15 mm, respectively, as well as antifungal activity against Candida albicans with inhibition zone of 12 mm .
3.6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea inhibits tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM-) 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. This extract also suppresses the translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 to the nucleus, TNF-α-induced NF-κB binding, and the degradation of inhibitor molecule (IκB)α. Furthermore, an inhibition in the adhesion of HL-60 cells to TNF-α-induced HUVECs and TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of interleukin- (IL-) 8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1 is also observed. The aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea may also play an important role in the suppression of the vascular inflammatory process related to the development of atherosclerosis .
3.7. Antiulcerogenic Activity
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea at 0.8 g/kg and 1.4 g/kg, respectively, can reduce the severity of HCl-induced gastric ulcers in a dose-dependent manner; this is comparable to the effect observed with sucralfate 0.1 g/kg. In addition, the aqueous extract (0.56 and 0.8 g/kg) and the ethanolic extract (0.8 and 1.4 g/kg) display suppression of lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The oral and intraperitoneal doses of both extracts dose-dependently increase the pH of gastric juice in mice with pylorus ligation. Thus, Portulaca oleracea holds great promise as an effective therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal diseases due to its gastroprotective activity .
3.8. Hepatoprotective Activity
Intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 elicits liver injury in rats, which notably upregulates the levels of total bilirubin and serum hepatic marker enzymes, including glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). A 70% alcohol extract of Portulaca oleracea significantly reverses the increase in hepatic marker enzymes and total bilirubin levels, confirming the hepatoprotective activity of this plant .
3.9. Other Activities
The ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea at a concentration range of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively, displays a dose-dependent effect in prolonging the survival time of mice in hypoxic models, including closed normobaric hypoxia and potassium cyanide or sodium nitrite toxicosis. This extract also enhances the activities of phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in glycolysis and the level of adenosine triphosphate of mouse cortices in hypoxia models . The preliminary wound healing activity of Portulaca oleracea has been appraised in Mus musculus JVI-1 and it has been shown that a fresh crude extract significantly accelerates the wound healing course by the stimulation of wound contraction and downregulation of the surface area of the excision wound . Portulaca oleracea also has the ability to accumulate Se even at the shortest time span of 42 days, and hence it can perform the dual functions of preventing the occurrence of Se deficiency linked diseases such as Keshan and Kashin-Beck diseases .Go to:
Portulaca oleracea is of considerable importance to the food industry and also possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities, which are associated with its diverse chemical constituents, including flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
Although bioactivities of extracts or compounds isolated from Portulaca oleracea are substantiated by using in vitro and in vivo studies including animal models and cell culture studies, the mechanisms of action have not been addressed. Hence, more mechanistic studies are required before Portulaca oleracea can be considered for further clinical use. This review concludes thatPortulaca oleracea is an edible and a medicinal plant which is important to the food industry and may also have a significant role to play in health care provided that adequate studies are conducted.Go to:
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 81173462 and 81102774), National Science and Technology Major Projects for Major New Drugs Innovation and Development (2014ZX09J14106-06c), and the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine Resources.Go to:
Conflict of Interests
The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interests.Go to:
Yan-Xi Zhou and Hai-Liang Xin contributed equally to this work.
الجذور المطحونه تخفي الجذام من جذوره
واللبن من النبات يشفي امراض المنطقه الجلديه التناسليه او الكانديدا
وبيصنع من ملابس باستخراج مادته الحريريه المطاطيه الشمعيه
من مقبره باسيمس
فوائد نبات العشر هناك الكثير من الفوائد لنبات العشر وهي :
 يفيد صحة القلب والأوعية الدموية. يعالج أمراض المسالك البولية، والمثانة، والكلى. يحتوي على سكريات مفيدة للجهاز الهضمي، وخصوصاً للمعدة. يقوي النظر، ويحافظ على صحة العينين. يطرد الحشرات المتطفلة؛ مثل: حشرة البق. يعالج التشنجات التي تصيب الجسم. يدخل في العديد من الصناعات؛ مثل: صناعة أدوات صيد السمك، وتصنيغ الملابس، وصناعة البارود. يطرد الديدان المعوية. يعتبر مليناً للأمعاء، ويخلص الجسم من الإمساك. يعالج العديد من الأمراض؛ مثل: القوباء، والكوليرا، والدوسنتاريا. يعالج البثور الجلدية والتقرحات. يعتبر دواءً نافعاً لقرحة المعدة. يدرّ البول. يفتح الشهية لتناول الطعام. يعالج مرض الربو التحسسي. يهدئ السعال، ويطرد البلغم؛ لاحتوائه على مواد مخاطية رقيقة. يعالج التهاب المفاصل الروماتيزمي. يقضي على الفطريات، والبكتيريا، ومسببات الأمراض. يعالج آلام الأسنان والفم. يخفف الحمى. يقي من حدوث نوبات الصرع. يساعد على الشفاء من العديد من الأمراض؛ مثل: مرض الزهري، والجذام، والنقرس. يقضي على الجذور الحرة للخلايا، مما يمنع الإصابة بالسرطان. يزيل آثار لدغات الثعابين والحشرات عن الجلد. يدخل في تصنيع الألياف الحريرية والنسيج؛ وذلك لاحتوائه على ألياف شبيهة بألياف نبات الكتان، كما يتم الحصول على قطن منه يُستخدم في المنسوجات، وشباك صيد الطيور والأسماك. يُستخدم في علاج داء الفيل.
الآثار الجانبية لتناول نبات العشر هناك عدة اثار جانبيه لنبات العشر وهي :
 يحتوي على العديد من المواد الكيميائية التي قد تؤثر على وظائف عضلة القلب وتتداخل معها. يسبب الشعور بالغثيان والقيء. يسبب الإسهال. يؤدي إلى تباطؤ دقات القلب. يسبب الإصابة بالتنشجات المختلفة. يؤثر على صحة الأم الحامل والجنين، لذلك يجب تجنبه تماماً في فترة الحمل. يسبب الموت لبعض الأشخاص. يحتوي على عصارة لبنية سامة حيث يسبب تناولها الإصابة بالتقيحات.
Calotropis procera treats leprosy
Asclepias procera Ait.
Ground roots or the ash of the burnt roots are applied as a salve or rubbed in to treat skin rash, skin infections, venereal diseases and leprosy.
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5  June 2016: 74-81
©2016 Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Online ISSN 2277-1808
Global Impact Factor 0.533
Universal Impact Factor 0.9804
REVIEW ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
Calotropis procera (Madar): A Medicinal Plant of Various Therapeutic Uses-A Review
Bhumika Yogi*, Sujeet Kumar Gupta and Ashutosh Mishra
*Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hygia Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Lucknow
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Acharya Narendra Deo College of Pharmacy, Babhnan, Gonda Corresponding footnote: * Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) has been known to the traditional systems of medicine and plant known as Madar in Unani medicinal system. Widely it is used medicinally, to treat boils, infected wounds and other skin problems in people. Calotropis procera is regarded as useful medicinal plant and used in folk medicine. This plant is popularly known because it produces large quantity of latex. Medicinal plants have no doubt remained the major sources of traditional medicine worldwide. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as Analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrhoeal, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antifertility and antioxidant activity. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethanobotenical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Calotropis procera.
Key words: Calotropis procera, Ethanobotenical uses, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacological activities
Received 12.02.2016 Revised 24.04.2016 Accepted 26.05. 2016
It is mentioned by the earliest Hindu writers and the primeval name of the plant which occurs in the vedic literature was Arka alluding to the form of leaves, which was used in the sacrifical cremation. Thereare two common species of Calotropis, viz. Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) and Calotropis procera (Ait.) described by the Sanskrit writers . Giant milkweed is also known as Sodom apple. Vernacular names of Calotropisare Madar (Hindi); crown flower (English); Akanda (Bengali); Adityapuspiker (Sanskrit); Vellerukku (Tamil) and Ak (Punjabi) . Ak is used in many ayurvedic formulations like Arkelavana etc. Especially the root bark are used to treat a variety of illness including leprosy, fever, menorrhagia, malaria and snake bite . The taxonomy of the plant is described in Table 1 .
Fig 1. Twig of Calotropis procera plant
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Table 1: Classification of Calotropis procera-
ETHANOBOTANY OF PLANT
A small erect and compact shrub covered with cotony tomentum, up to 5.4 m in height, found growing wild throughout India in comparatively drier and warmer areas, up to an altitude 1050 m. Calotropis procera has been observed to grow mainly on coarse, sandy and alkaline soils. They are good soils binder and recommended for deserts. The life span of Calotropis is 12 years. It will be seen that root-bark from older plants has a higher percentage of acrid and bitter resinous matter than that from younger plants. In the supplement to the pharmacopoeia of India, he reports that he found that the older the plant, the more active is the bark in its effects .
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANT
The morphological studies revealed the plant is erect, tall, large, much branched and perennial with milky latex throughout. Calotropis procera have large bushy shrub, leaves decussate, inflorescence extra axillary umbellate panicale, corolla purple, lobes erect. The leaves are sub- sessile, 6-15 cm by 4.5-8 cm, broadly ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic or obovate acute, pubescent; when young and glabrous on both sides when mature .
MICROSCOPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANT
Transverse section through midrib shows an upper and lower single layered epidermis externally covered thick, striated cuticle, few epidermis cells on both lower and upper surfaces, parenchymatous cells thin-walled, isodiametric to circular with intracellular spaces present in ground tissue, bicollateral and open vascular bundle, xylem consists mostly of vessels and tracheids, a strip of cambium present between xylem and phloem tissues. Palisade and spongy parenchymatous tissues are present .
Purity test of Calotropis procera depicts the following characteristics: 1) Foreign matter should not more than 2 percent, 2) Total ash content should not more than 21 percent, 3) Acid- insoluble ash should not more than 5 percent, 4) water-soluble extractives not less than 24 percent, 5) Alcohol-soluble extractive not less than 5 percent .
Phytochemically the plant has been investigated for cardenolides from the latex and leaves , triterpenoids [10, 11], anthocyanins from flowers  and hydrocarbons .
A systematic study on fresh and undried flowers has resulted in the isolation of pentacyclic triterpene that calotropenyl acetate (urs-19(29)-en-3β-yl acetate) (A), Procesterol (B) (steroidal hydroxyl ketone) . The chemical and spectral studies identified as C-6, C-24 diepimer of stigmast-4en-6β-ol-3-one .Calotropis procera contain proceragenin an antibacterial cardenolide .
The latex of C. procera contains about 88-93% water and water soluble. The chemical screening of its latex revealed that this plant contain cardinolides such as calotropin, calotoxin, uscharin, uscharidin, voruscharin .
The root of C. procera contains procerursenyl acetate and proceranol which were isolated by Ali et al., 2008. Root also contain n-Dotriacont-6-ene, glyceryl mono-oleolyl-2-phosphate, methyl myrisate, methyl behenate, glceryl-1, 2- dieapriate-3-phosphate .
Whole plant was used to treat common diseases such as fever, rheumatism, indigestion, cold, eczema, diarrohea, for the treatment of boils and for the treatment of jaundice. The root was used for the treatment of eczema, leprosy, elephantiasis, asthma, cough, rheumatism and diarrhoea. In case of diarrhoea it changed the faecal matter into a semisolid mass within the first day of treatment. The stem was used for the treatment of skin diseases, intestinal worms, leprosy and cure leucoderma [19, 20].PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF Calotropis procera PLANT
1) Analgesic activity
Analgesic activity of dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera was evaluated by Kumar et al (2000). A single oral dose of DL ranging from 165 to 830 mg/kg produced a significant dose dependent analgesic effect against acetic acid induced writhing. The effect of DL (830 mg/ml) produced marginal analgesic effect of DL was delayed by 1 h by naloxone at dose of 0.5mg/kg, i.p., which completely blocked the analgesic effect of morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the effect of aspirin was not blocked by naloxone. The 830 mg/kg oral dose of DL did not produced toxic effects in mice and the LD50 was found to 3 g/ kg .
2) Hepatoprotective activity
Hydro-ethanolic extract (70%) of flowers was prepared and tested for its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatitis in rats by Setty et al (2007). Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL, tissue GSH were tested in both treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (2.0 g/kg) has enhanced the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin and cholesterol levels and reduced the serum level of GSH. Treatment with hydro-ethanolic extract ofCalotropis procera flowers (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) has brought back the altered levels of biochemical markers to the near normal levels in the dose dependent manner .
3) Anti-diarrhoeal activity
The dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), a potent anti-inflammatory agent has been evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity by Kumar et al (2001). Like atropine and phenyl butazone, a single dose of DL (500 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in frequency of defecation, severity of diarrhea and afforded protection from diarrhea in 80% rats treated with castor oil induced intestinal fluid accumulation and electrolyte concentration in intestinal fluid. DL produced a decrease in intestinal transit (27-37%) as compared to both normal and castor oil treated animals. Unlike atropine, DL significantly inhibited castor oil induced enteropooling. 
4) Antidiabetic activity
In the present study, dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera possessing potent anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated for its antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic effects against alloxen induced diabetes in rats by Kumar et al (2005). Daily oral administration of DL at 100 and 400mg/kg doses produced a dose-
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dependent decrease in the blood glucose and increase in hepatic glycogen content. The efficacy of DL as an antioxidant and as anti-diabetic agents was comparable to the standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide .
5) Antimalarial activity
From an ethanobotanical approach, the ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera leaves, stems, roots, flowers and buds have been screened in vitro for anti malarial activity against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains .
6) Antinociceptive activity
This work evaluated the antinociceptive effect of proteins from the Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) latex using three different experimental models of nociception in mice by Vasconcelos et al (2005). The latex protein fraction administered intraperitoneally in male mice at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg showed the antinociceptive effect in dose dependent manner compared to the respective controls in all assays .
7) Anti-inflammatory activity
The anti-inflammatory property of the Calotropis procera was studied on carrageenin and formalin- induced rat paw edema model by Kumar et al (1994). A single dose of the aqueous suspension of the dried latex was effective to a significant level against the acute inflammatory response .
8) Anthelmintic activity
The anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera flowers in comparison with levamisole was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo studies by Iqbal et al (2005). In vitro studies revealed anthelmintic effects (P<0.05) of crude aqueous and crude methanolic extracts of Calotropis procera flowers on liveHaemonchus contortus as evident from their mortality or temporary paralysis. For in vivo studies,Calotropis procera flowers were administered as crude powder to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gatrointrointestinal nematodes .
The ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. leaves were separated into n-butanol and water fractions. The n-butanol fraction was subjected to column chromatography. Ethanolic extract, n-butanol, and water fractions as well as n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform: methanol (9:1); chromatographic elutes of n-butanol fraction were evaluated for in-vitro anthelmintic activity using Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma as a experimental models. The results revealed that ethanolic extract, water fraction, n-hexane, and chloroform elutes showed better activity as compared to n-butanol fraction and chloroform: methanol (9:1) elute of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Leaves .
9) Anticonvulsant activity
Alcoholic extract of the roots of Calotropis procera was evaluated for various pharmacological parameters like acute toxicity, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypnotic activities by Kamath et al (2003). The extract at the dose level of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg potentiated the hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone sodium and was found to posses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. However the extract failed to exhibit anticonvulsant activity both in leptazole and electroshock induced convulsion in rats .
10) Antimicrobial activity
The antimicrobial effect of ethanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of leaf and latex of Calotropis procera on six bacteria, three fungi, one yeast Candida albicans were determined using agar well diffusion and paper disk methods (kareem et al. 2008) . The results revealed that ethanol was the best extractive solvent for antimicrobial properties of leaf and latex of C. procera followed in order by Chloroform and aqueous (P<0.05). The ethanolic extracts of C. procera latex gave the widest zone of inhibition (14.1mm) against E-coli using agar well diffusion while 9.0 mm was recorded for the same organism in the disc plate method.The growth of six bacterial isolates were inhibited by the three extracts except P.aeruginosa andS.pyogenes that were not inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both leaf and latex of C.procera. Similarly, the growth of four test fungi were inhibited by ethanol and chloroform extracts while the aqueous extract was the least effective on the test fungi. The best antifungal activity was recorded in ethanol extract of C. procera latex against Candida albicans .
11) Anticancer activity
An attempt was made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity, cytotoxic activity and polyphenolic content of methanolic extract of Calotropis procera flowers. Free radical scavenging activity was estimated using in vitro models like 1,1,-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, reducing power and ferric thiocyanate method. Cytotoxicity was analysed following MTT assay using Hep2 and Vero cell lines and polyphenols were estimated using standard methods. The methanol extract of C. procera at 500 μg/ml showed better scavenging activity in ferric thiocyanade method (83.63 %) with the lowest IC50 of 100 μg/ml followed by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical
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scavenging and least activity was found to be present in DPPH assay (50.82 %). The extract had 100 % cytotoxicity on Hep2 cell lines .
12) Antifertility activity
The effect of ethanolic extract of the roots of calotropis procera has been studied in albino rats
To explore its antifertility and hormonal activities. A strong antiimplantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dosenlevel of 250 mg/kg (1/4 of LD50). No antiestrogenic activity could be detected .
13) Antioxidant activity
The different fractions of methanolic extract of leaf of Calotropis procera was tested for antioxidant activity using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals by Yogi et al (2011). The extracts of Calotropis procera exhibited that fraction F3 of chromatographic elutes of methanolic extract having IC50 82 ± 5.23 mg/ml showed potent antioxidant activity comparable to standard ascorbic acid (IC50 69.13 ± 4.08mg/ml).This study suggests that leaves of Calotropis procera have bioactive compounds for a new antioxidant drug development greater capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals whereas leaf extract showed moderate free radical scavenging activity .
This study indicated the potential usefulness of C. procera (Ait) R. Br. leaves against different. A thorough review of the published literature on Calotropis procera shows that it is a popular remedy in a variety, as well as Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for the treatment of a range of diseases. Calotropis procerais a plant with assorted chemical constituents which exerted many pharmacological effects. There is a great pledge for development of novel drugs from Calotropis procera to treat numerous human diseases. Researchers are exploring the therapeutic potential of this plant as it is likely to have more therapeutic properties than are currently known.
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